4sea, Climate Politics, Energy, Oceans

Development of wind farms on the high seas: a new challenge for the international law of the sea

 This article is part of the 4sea project.

Climate change and growth of the world population is finally making us create a common wake-up call about to be taken serious: the use of fossil fuels must be reduced. As a result of this, development of renewable energy is gaining ground. For a long time, renewable energy has been developed land-based, however there is now a growing trend for renewable energy to be developed in the sea. Because of the benefits of offshore renewable resources, sea is becoming a playing field for new developments. For example, as for wind energy, marine winds are more abundant, stronger, and blow more consistently than land winds.

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Gender

Women: the invisible rural heroes under climate pressure

This article is written by Mathilde Thonon.

If I ask you to close your eyes and visualize a farmer, a pitchfork with a straw hat may come to your mind to adorn the picture of a tanned-looking man. In most people’s subconscious, a farmer is male not female. However, in many parts of the developing world, women are the backbone of agricultural labor. In some African and South Asian countries, they represent up to 60% of the active population engaged in agriculture.

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Climate Finance, Climate Talks, COP23 - Fiji & Bonn

Climate finance negotiations and game theory: how a green equilibrium could not be achieved (Part 3)

This article is divided in 3 parts. Read the 1st part here and the 2nd part here.
This article is written by Solène Dengler.

Public and private sector finance is needed to achieve the Paris Agreement objectives

The Paris Agreement sets out two different objectives as regards climate finance: on the one hand developed countries need to invest $100bn dollars per year for mitigation and adaptation projects in developing countries and on the other hand, all finance flows need to progressively be consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

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Climate Finance, Climate Talks, COP23 - Fiji & Bonn

Climate finance negotiations and game theory: how a green equilibrium could not be achieved (Part 2)

This article is divided in 3 parts. Read the 1st part here and the 3rd part here.
This article is written by Solène Dengler.

Adaptation fund: a weak deal for loss & damage?

According to recent estimates, the costs of adapting to climate change could reach 280-500$ billion per year until 2050 while total bilateral and multilateral funding in developing countries reached 22.5$ billion in 2014. The Fund has been in operation since 2017, has allocated 462 million dollars to 70 adaptation programmes in 58 countries and had a fundraising target of 80 million dollars for 2017 that was surpassed. The numbers speak for themselves, representing a very small fraction of the amount needed for adaptation and loss and damage worldwide, which is often explained by the nature of the fund and the lack of orientation towards scalability of projects.

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Climate Action, Climate Finance, Climate Politics

Only one

This article was originally published on l’Usine à Gaz
This article is written by Damien Soldadié.

« We only have one planet »

This is the main argument of Emmanuel Macron -speaking of evidence- to organize the One Planet Summit that took place in Paris this week. I was glad when I heard his introduction speech, when I saw the diversity of actors who made the engagement to take part to the transition. I truly hope that the French president still means what he said during his allocution.We are used to the promising speeches of our president, that hide a fiduciary truth, so we need to go deeper and look at what he did and plan to do in the future.


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Climate Finance, Climate Talks, COP23 - Fiji & Bonn

Climate finance negotiations and game theory: how a green equilibrium could not be achieved (Part 1)

This article is divided in 3 parts. Check out the 2nd part here and 3rd part here!
This article is written by Solène Dengler.

Part 1: The lack of climate finance pledges

When studying economics you learn among others about game theory, a field of study that studies strategic decision making in situations of competition and conflict, cooperation and interdependence under specific rules. A “climate dilemma” is often described, derived from the Prisoner’s dilemma by Albert Tucker where the best possible outcome for all parties cannot be achieved given the short term benefit from an individual perspective to quit. The best example of course is the announced US exit from the Paris agreement. While trying to apply these theories to better understand the process of negotiations as an observer, you quickly realise that you lack large amounts of information about preferences of actors, their knowledge, strategic actions they are allowed to make and how each decision influences the outcome. And that while the ice is melting you may only really see the tip of the iceberg.

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Climate Talks, COP23 - Fiji & Bonn, Indigenous People, Loss & Damage

Loss and damages at COP23: why are we stuck?

This article is written by Adele Fardoux.

Thursday 16th of November in the NY plenary room of the UN Campus in Bonn. In front of a half-filled room, His Excellency Enele Sosene Sopoaga, Prime Minister of Tuvalu addressed the crowd with powerful words: “how would you feel if you were in my shoes? What would you do if you were facing the total disappearance of your country?”. Emphasizing on the threat of disappearance that are facing most Small Islands Developing States (SIDS), H.E Sopoaga raised his concerns about the state of negotiations regarding Loss and Damages at COP23.

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